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How do websites work - things you need to know

As the internet has become an integral part of our lives, so has the use of websites. From shopping to booking appointments to accessing information, websites are a crucial aspect of our daily routines.

However, many people may not fully understand how websites work or the processes involved in accessing and navigating them.

In this article, I will explore the basic principles of how websites work and what you need to know to make the most of them.

What is a website?

A website is a collection of related web pages that are hosted on a web server and can be accessed through the internet using a web browser. Websites can serve a variety of purposes, including sharing information, selling products or services, entertaining visitors, and connecting people.

They can be created by individuals, businesses, organizations, and governments to reach a global audience and share their message with the world.

A website typically consists of a combination of text, images, videos, and other multimedia content, and can be designed using various programming languages and technologies.

How does website work with all components?

A website is made up of several components that work together to deliver a seamless user experience. These major components include:

  1. Code

  2. Domain

  3. Server

  4. Browser


The code is the foundation of any website. It's the set of instructions that tell the website how to look, feel, and function. There are several coding languages used to create websites, including HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is used to structure the content of the website, such as text, images, and videos. CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is used to add visual styles to the HTML content, such as fonts, colors, and layouts. JavaScript is used to add interactivity to the website, such as animations, pop-ups, and forms.

To create a website, a web developer uses a text editor or an integrated development environment (IDE) to write the code. The code is then saved as a set of files, which are uploaded to a server.


A domain is the web address that people use to access a website. For example, google.com is a domain. When someone types a domain into their browser's address bar, the browser sends a request to the server that hosts the website.

To acquire a domain, you need to purchase it from a domain registrar. The domain registrar is a company that manages the registration of domain names. The registration process involves selecting a unique domain name, choosing the top-level domain (TLD), and paying the registration fee.

Some popular TLDs include .com, .org, .net, and .edu. Once you've registered a domain, you need to link it to the server where your website is hosted.


A server is a computer that stores and serves the website's files. When someone types in a domain name in their browser, the browser sends a request to the server. The server receives the request, finds the website's files, and sends them back to the browser.

There are different types of servers used for hosting websites, including shared hosting, VPS hosting, and dedicated hosting.

Shared hosting is the most affordable option, where several websites share the same server. This can sometimes result in slower load times and limited resources. VPS (Virtual Private Server) hosting is a step up from shared hosting, where you have a dedicated portion of the server resources. This allows for faster load times and more flexibility in configuring your website. Dedicated hosting is the most expensive option, where you have an entire server to yourself. This allows for the most resources and the most control over your website.


The browser is the software that interprets the website's code and displays it on the screen. Popular browsers include Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge.

When a person types a domain into their browser, the browser sends a request to the server. The server then sends the website's files back to the browser, which interprets the code and displays the website on the screen. The browser is responsible for rendering the HTML, applying the CSS styles, and executing the JavaScript code.

Website Design and Development

Now that we've covered the components of a website, let's dive deeper into the process of designing and developing a website.

Website Design

Website design is the process of creating the visual and interactive elements of a website. It involves creating a layout, choosing colors and fonts, and designing graphics and images. A good website design should be visually appealing, user-friendly, and accessible to everyone.

To create a website design, web designers use graphic design software such as Adobe Photoshop, Sketch, or Figma. They create wireframes and mockups of the website's pages and elements, which they use to guide the development process.

Web design also involves considering the user experience (UX) and user interface (UI) of the website. UX design focuses on creating a positive experience for users, while UI design focuses on designing the interface that users interact with.

Website Development

Website development is the process of building a website from scratch using code. It involves writing HTML, CSS, and JavaScript code to create the website's structure, styles, and functionality.

There are several tools and frameworks used in website development, including:

  • Content management systems (CMS) such as WordPress, Drupal, and Joomla

  • Front-end frameworks such as React, Angular, and Vue.js

  • Back-end frameworks such as Ruby on Rails, Django, and Laravel

The choice of tools and frameworks depends on the type of website being developed and the web developer's skills and preferences.

Website development also involves optimizing the website for search engines (SEO) and making sure it is responsive and accessible on different devices and browsers.

Website Maintenance

Once a website is launched, it requires regular maintenance to ensure it continues to function smoothly and securely. Website maintenance includes:

  • Updating the website's content and design

  • Fixing bugs and errors

  • Installing security updates and patches

  • Backing up the website's files and database

  • Monitoring website performance and uptime

Website maintenance can be done by the website owner or a professional web developer. It's important to keep the website up-to-date to ensure it remains secure, user-friendly, and optimized for search engines.

How to make a website?

Sure, here are the steps to follow to make a website:

STEP 1: Select a niche and choose a domain name

The first step in creating a website is to decide on a niche or topic for your website and choose a domain name that reflects your brand or website name. The domain name is the address that users will type into their browser to access your website.

STEP 2: Get a quality hosting plan

To make your website accessible on the internet, you need to sign up for a hosting plan. A web host is a service that stores your website files and makes them available online. It's important to choose a quality hosting plan that provides reliable uptime and fast page load times.

STEP 3: Choose a website building platform

There are several website building platforms available, including WordPress, Wix, Squarespace, and Shopify. Choose a platform that best suits your needs and skill level. WordPress is a popular choice for its flexibility and customizability, while Wix and Squarespace offer easy-to-use drag-and-drop interfaces.

STEP 4: Customize website pages

Once you have chosen a website building platform, you can start customizing your website pages. This includes selecting a website theme or template, adding text and images, and creating menus and navigation.

STEP 5: Create content and launch website

The final step is to create engaging content for your website, including blog posts, product descriptions, and about pages. Once your content is ready, you can launch your website and start promoting it through social media, email marketing, and other channels.


In conclusion, a website is made up of several components that work together to deliver a seamless user experience. These components include code, domain, server, and browser. Website design and development involve creating the visual and interactive elements of the website and building it from scratch using code. Website maintenance is important to ensure the website continues to function smoothly and securely.

Creating and maintaining a website can be a complex and time-consuming process, but with the right tools and knowledge, anyone can create a professional-looking website that engages and informs their target audience.

Frequently asked questions

Q1: Do I need to know how to code to create a website?

A: No, you don't necessarily need to know how to code to create a website. There are several website building platforms available that offer easy-to-use drag-and-drop interfaces, such as Wix, Squarespace, and Shopify. However, having a basic understanding of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript can be helpful if you want to customize your website's design and functionality.

Q2: How do I choose a domain name?

A: Choosing a domain name can be challenging, but here are some tips to help you:

  • Choose a domain name that reflects your brand or website name

  • Keep it short and memorable

  • Avoid using hyphens or numbers

  • Choose a domain extension that best suits your website (e.g., .com, .org, .net)

Q3: What is web hosting?

A: Web hosting is a service that stores your website files and makes them available online. When you sign up for a hosting plan, you are renting space on a server to store your website files. Web hosting providers offer different plans with varying levels of storage, bandwidth, and features.

Q4: How do I choose a hosting plan?

A: When choosing a hosting plan, consider the following factors:

  • Uptime guarantee: Look for a hosting provider that offers a high uptime guarantee (e.g., 99.9%)

  • Speed: Choose a hosting provider that offers fast page load times

  • Support: Look for a hosting provider that offers 24/7 customer support

  • Features: Choose a hosting plan that offers the features you need (e.g., email hosting, SSL certificate, automatic backups)

Q5: What is a website builder?

A: A website builder is a tool or platform that allows you to create a website without coding. Website builders offer pre-designed templates, drag-and-drop interfaces, and other features that make it easy to create a website.

Q6: What is WordPress?

A: WordPress is a popular content management system (CMS) that powers over 40% of all websites on the internet. It is an open-source platform that allows you to create and manage your website's content and design. WordPress offers a wide range of themes, plugins, and customizability options that make it a popular choice for website owners.

Q7: How do I customize my website design?

A: To customize your website design, you can:

  • Choose a website theme or template that reflects your brand and style

  • Add your own images and graphics

  • Customize your website's colors and fonts

  • Create a logo and favicon

  • Add custom CSS or JavaScript code

Q8: How do I optimize my website for search engines?

A: To optimize your website for search engines, you can:

  • Conduct keyword research to identify relevant keywords to target

  • Optimize your website's meta tags (title tags and meta descriptions)

  • Create high-quality, informative content that targets your keywords

  • Improve your website's page speed and mobile-friendliness

  • Build high-quality backlinks to your website

Q9: How do I make my website mobile-friendly?

A: To make your website mobile-friendly, you can:

  • Choose a responsive website theme or template

  • Optimize your website's images for mobile devices

  • Use a mobile-friendly font size and spacing

  • Test your website on multiple mobile devices and browsers

  • Use Google's mobile-friendly test tool to identify and fix issues

Tarikul islam

About Torikul islam

Torikul islam is a professional web developer and affiliate marketer. Join Torikul to learn how to start a website and operate it well. He started his Web Developement career from Bangladesh Association of Software and Information (BASIS) in 2015. Later he continiued his journey to expanding knowledge and sharing it with others.

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